被稱為史上最嚴的央行二代征信系統即將初步上線,與一代相比,它解決了循環貸、信用卡專項大額分期、共同借款人、企業與個人互保、逾期后還款信息等之前無法覆蓋的范圍。夫妻即使離婚,雙方負債情況也會一清二楚,避免了假離婚買房等漏洞。但在具體應用場景下,二代征信與個人權利的平衡問題,引起廣泛擔憂。

The second-generation credit information system, known as the most stringent in history, is about to be launched, compared with a generation, which addresses the previously inaccessible areas of revolving loans, large credit card installments, co-borrowers, corporate and personal mutual insurance, overdue repayment information, and so on. Even if the couple divorced, the debt situation will be clear, avoiding such loopholes as fake divorce to buy a house. But in the concrete application scene, the second generation credit information and the individual right balance question, causes the widespread concern.

新的征信系統此前一直在完善其囊括的項目,本次驚呼二代征信系統“狼來了”的第一聲警報竟然來自于房產中介。因為在正式上線前尚有短時間的維護期,中介動員那些意圖以假離婚來降低房貸首付的趕緊“行動”,在窗口期消失前享受最后的紅利。這一使用范例,生動體現了社會民眾對二代征信系統的愛與怕。

The new credit system has been improving its coverage of the project, this time the second generation of credit system \"wolf came\" the first warning from the real estate agency. Because there is a short maintenance period before the official launch, the agency has mobilized those who want to use fake divorces to reduce the mortgage down payment quickly \"action\" to enjoy the final dividend before the window period disappears. This example vividly reflects the public's love and fear for the second generation credit information system.

央行征信中心負責人介紹,二代征信系統包括三方面信息:一是個人信貸信息,實現對個人金融信用的全覆蓋;二是“先消費后付款”的信用信息,包括電信等公用事業繳費,幫助缺少信貸記錄的人建立信用檔案;三是公共信息,包括行政許可和處罰信息、法院失信被執行人情況。

The second-generation credit information system includes three aspects of information: first, personal credit information to achieve full coverage of personal financial credit; second, credit information of \"first consumption and then payment \", including payment of public utilities such as telecommunications, to help people who lack credit records establish credit records; and third, public information, including administrative licensing and punishment information, and the situation of the person subjected to breach of trust in the court, according to the central bank's credit information center.

從積極意義上講,二代征信系統圍繞個人的經濟行為建立了一整套評測機制,有助于提高經濟關系中信息共享的透明度,避免因信息不對稱造成的各種損失。不過,考慮到征信應用的許多審查場景,征信對個人權利勢必造成擠壓,要求后者讓渡,這就對征信系統本身的合法性及應用中的公平提出了苛刻要求。

In a positive sense, the second generation credit information system establishes a whole set of evaluation mechanism around the individual's economic behavior, which helps to improve the transparency of information sharing in economic relations and avoid all kinds of losses caused by information asymmetry. However, considering the many censorship scenarios of credit information application, credit information is bound to cause a squeeze on individual rights, which requires the latter to give way, which puts forward a harsh demand for the legitimacy of the credit information system itself and the fairness in its application.

比如二代征信系統對夫妻共有房貸的體現——作為共同借款人,夫妻雙方征信均體現負債。這意味著,即便離婚,非主貸人再次買房屬于有房有貸,首付80%。這確實可以堵塞假離婚降低首付的漏洞,但如果是真離婚呢?如果非主貸人沒有在財產分割中拿到房子,他/她在離婚后再次購房仍按照有房有貸來審核,就很不公平。最嚴征信就有可能在做“好事”前干下“壞事”,用堵塞漏洞的方法傷害無辜民眾。

For example, the second-generation credit information system on the husband and wife common mortgage embodiment - as a co-borrower, both husband and wife credit reflects debt. This means that even if divorced, non-creditors buy a house again is a home loan, down payment of 80%. This does plug the gap between fake divorces and lower down payments, but what if it's a real divorce? If the non-owner doesn't get the house in the division, it's unfair that he or she will still have a house to review after the divorce. The strictest credit information is likely to do \"bad things\" before doing \"good \", using the method of plugging loopholes to hurt innocent people.

二代征信對信用卡的監督覆蓋,可以防止信用卡“接龍”還債的手段,這對某些靠信用卡滾動維持生計的人明顯不利,有可能令這種個人的經濟“自轉”陷入停頓,或許有助于個人戒斷對信用卡透支的依賴,整頓更健康的個人財務。這些當然都是二代征信的正面價值,也需要人們全面看待系統的意義。

The second-generation credit coverage of credit cards prevents them from paying their debts, which is clearly detrimental to some people who rely on credit cards to make a living, and could put such individuals'economic \"rotation\" to a halt, perhaps helping them to stop relying on credit card overdrafts and overhaul healthier personal finances. These are certainly the positive values of the second generation of credit, but also need people to comprehensively view the significance of the system.

問題是,征信活動是一種信息服務,但不是所有的信息服務都是征信。一般而言,個人的債務信息,以及與其償債能力、償債意愿有關的信息,才是構成征信的邏輯主線,其主要目的是為了防范信用違約風險。但以目前操作的邏輯看,給人感覺,二代征信系統要想建立無上的權威,就必須竭力挖掘個人生存的經濟信息。征信系統從一出生,就帶著占有公民信息的勃勃野心。這正在形成一種社會管理的傾向,將越來越多的公民行為納入征信系統,征信系統不堪負載,但治理者樂此不疲。

The problem is that credit information activity is an information service, but not all information services are credit information. Generally speaking, the personal debt information, as well as the information related to its solvency and willingness to pay, constitute the logical main line of credit information, the main purpose of which is to guard against the risk of credit default. But with the logic of the current operation, it feels that if the second generation credit system wants to establish the supreme authority, it must try its best to excavate the economic information of individual survival. Credit information system from birth, with the possession of citizen information ambitious. This is forming a tendency of social management, more and more citizen behavior into the credit system, credit system is overloaded, but the governance is happy.

這種將個人信息作為管理手段的傾向,此前在廣受詬病的各大城市社會信用體系中,已體現得十分明顯。比如將無償獻血納入社會征信,交通違章納入征信系統,武漢將道路停車費欠繳也納入征信,還有人建議將醫鬧納入征信……五花八門,征信系統成了萬能系統,但凡需要懲罰和誡勉的地方都引入征信系統。對征信系統的濫用和盲信,實際上構成了征信系統強大與脆弱的特點,甚至可能會崩盤。

This tendency to use personal information as a management tool has been evident in the widely criticized social credit systems in major cities. For example, free blood donation into the social credit, traffic violations into the credit system, Wuhan will be the road parking fee arrears into the credit, some people suggested that the medical trouble into the credit... Various, credit information system has become a universal system, but where the need for punishment and admonition are introduced credit system. The abuse of credit system and blind letter, in fact, constitute the strong and fragile characteristics of credit system, and may even collapse.

與征信系統擴張其信息領域同時發生的,是個人信息、個人隱私保護面臨更大的考驗。截至去年11月底,個人征信系統接入各類房貸機構共3693家,基本實現了對個人金融信用信息的全覆蓋。個人的綜合信息越是容易一覽無余,也就越容易成為各類商業機構爭奪利用的對象。

At the same time with the expansion of credit information system in its information field, personal information, personal privacy protection is facing a greater test. By the end of November last year, the personal credit information system had access to 3693 mortgage agencies of all kinds, basically realizing the full coverage of personal financial credit information. The easier it is for a person to have comprehensive information, the easier it is for a variety of business organizations to compete for access.

如果信息泄露,或者征信在沒有得到個人授權的情況下就被利用于某一商業領域,就相當于,將個人核心信息,住址、電話、配偶、房產、貸款等置于非常不安全的境地。這種潛在的個人危險很容易被狂熱、激進的征信神話所掩蓋,務必要制定嚴格的門檻和措施來防患。

If information is leaked, or credit information is used in a business area without personal authorization, it is tantamount to placing personal core information, address, telephone, spouse, property, loan, etc. in a very unsafe situation. This potential personal danger is easily masked by fanatical, radical credit myth, and it is important to set strict barriers and measures to prevent it.

然而,目前無論從立法執法還是從實際層面,我們都看到,重采集輕保護的情況比比皆是,以征信名義侵犯個人隱私權的更不在話下。這背后既有懶政思維使然,將行政良治等同于信息控制;也有商業牟利的小算盤,依靠征信系統逼迫個人就范,在公民信息庫上謀劃盈利模式。

However, at present, whether from the legislative law enforcement or from the actual level, we all see that the situation of re-collection of light protection is everywhere, in the name of credit infringement of personal privacy rights. Behind this is both lazy political thinking, the administration of good governance equal to information control; but also commercial profit-making small abacus, relying on the credit information system to force individuals to submit, in the citizen information base to plan profit model.

征信系統越是苛刻,個人權利越是逼仄,公平對待個人權利越困難。比如上述有關夫妻共有房貸的征信,遏制假離婚沒錯,但真離婚的合法合理權益就會被征信系統踩在腳下。對那些只依靠征信系統來對公民“畫像”的,得出的很可能是扭曲的印象,進而按照偏見來對待個人權利主張,這對公民權利都不是好事。

The more demanding the credit system is, the more narrow the individual's rights are, and the more difficult it is to treat them fairly. For example, the above-mentioned couple-owned mortgage credit, to curb false divorce is true, but the legitimate and reasonable rights and interests of the real divorce will be trampled under the credit system. For those who rely solely on the credit information system to \"portrait\" citizens, the impression is likely to be distorted, and then the bias to treat individual claims, this is not good for civil rights.

總之,史上最嚴征信系統且慢為它歡呼,或者說,要識別那些為它歡呼的都是些什么人,為什么歡呼。再回頭來對照下,在征信系統的管理下,一個正常的經濟行為如何被其影響、控制。如果迷信征信系統無所不能,那一定伴隨著個人權利的損害!笆飞献顕馈辈辉撝惑w現在信息的廣度上,更應該體現在保護個人隱私個人權利上。

In short, the strictest system in history has slowed down to cheer for it, or to identify those who cheer it, or why. Then go back to control, under the credit system management, a normal economic behavior by its influence, control. If the superstitious credit system can do anything, it must be accompanied by personal rights damage. \"The strictest in history\" should not only be reflected in the breadth of information, but also in the protection of individual privacy rights.


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